Chapter 17 Flashcards

amnesia
Severe impairment of memory.
AMPA receptor
A glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist AMPA. The AMPA receptor is responsible for most of the activity at glutamatergic synapses. See Figure 17.24.
anterograde amnesia
The inability to form new memories beginning with the onset of a disorder. Compare retrograde amnesia.
associative learning
A type of learning in which an association is formed between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response; includes both classical and instrumental conditioning. Compare non-associative learning.
border cell
A neuron that selectively fires when the animal arrives at the perimeter of the local spatial cognitive map.
cAMP responsive element–binding protein
See CREB.
cell assembly
A large group of cells that tend to be active at the same time because they have been activated simultaneously or in close succession in the past.
classical conditioning
Also called Pavlovian conditioning. A type of associative learning in which an originally neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS)—through pairing with another stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus, or US) that elicits a particular response—acquires the power to elicit that response when presented alone. A response elicited by the US is called an unconditioned response (UR); a response elicited by the CS alone is called a conditioned response (CR). Compare instrumental conditioning.
cognitive map
A mental representation of a spatial relationship.
conditional knockout
A gene that can be selectively deactivated either in specific tissues and/or at a specific stage of development.
conditioning
A form of learning in which an organism comes to associate two stimuli, or a stimulus and a response. See also classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning.
confabulate
To fill in a gap in memory with a falsification; often seen in Korsakoff’s syndrome.
consolidation
A stage of memory formation in which information in short-term or intermediate-term memory is transferred to long-term memory. See Figure 17.8.
declarative memory
A memory that can be stated or described. See Figures 17.3, 17.5, 17.8. Compare nondeclarative memory.
delayed non-matching-to-sample task
A test in which the subject must respond to the unfamiliar stimulus of a pair. See Figure 17.11.
dentate gyrus
A strip of gray matter in the hippocampal formation. See Figure 17.23.
dishabituation
The restoration of response amplitude following habituation.
encoding
A stage of memory formation in which the information entering sensory channels is passed into short-term memory. See Figure 17.18.
engram
The physical basis of a memory in the brain. Sometimes referred to as a memory trace on the assumption that it involves changes in a neural circuit rather than a single neuron.
enriched condition (EC)
Also called complex environment. A condition in which laboratory rodents are group-housed with a wide variety of stimulus objects. See Figure 17.19. Compare impoverished condition and standard condition.
episodic memory
Memory of a particular incident or a particular time and place.
grid cell
A neuron that selectively fires when the animal crosses the intersection points of an abstract grid map of the local environment.
habituation
A form of nonassociative learning in which an organism becomes less responsive following repeated presentations of a stimulus. Compare sensitization (definition 1).
Hebbian synapse
A synapse that is strengthened when it successfully drives the postsynaptic cell.
hippocampus (pl. hippocampi)
A medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory. See Figures 2.17, 17.1, 17.23.
iconic memory
A very brief type of memory that stores the sensory impression of a scene. Compare short-term memory.
impoverished condition (IC)
Also called isolated condition. A condition in which laboratory rodents are housed singly in a small cage without complex stimuli. See Figure 17.19. Compare enriched condition and standard condition.
instrumental conditioning
Also called operant conditioning. A form of associative learning in which the likelihood that an act (instrumental response) will be performed depends on the consequences (reinforcing stimuli) that follow it. Compare classical conditioning.
intermediate-term memory (ITM)
A form of memory that lasts longer than short-term memory, but not as long as long-term memory.
Korsakoff’s syndrome
A memory disorder, related to a thiamine deficiency, that is generally associated with chronic alcoholism.
latent learning
Learning that has taken place but has not (yet) been demonstrated by performance.
learning
The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information, behavior patterns, or abilities, characterized by modifications of behavior as a result of practice, study, or experience.
long-term memory (LTM)
An enduring form of memory that lasts days, weeks, months, or years and has a very large capacity.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
A stable and enduring increase in the effectiveness of synapses following repeated strong stimulation. See Figures 17.22, 17.23, 17.24. Compare long-term depression.
memory
1. The ability to retain information, based on the mental process of learning or encoding, retention across some interval of time, and retrieval or reactivation of the memory. 2. The specific information that is stored in the brain.
neural plasticity
See neuroplasticity.
neuroplasticity
Also called neural plasticity. The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment.
NMDA receptor
A glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate). The NMDA receptor is both ligand-gated and voltage-sensitive, so it can participate in a wide variety of information processing. See Figure 17.24.
nonassociative learning
A type of learning in which presentation of a particular stimulus alters the strength or probability of a response according to the strength and temporal spacing of that stimulus; includes habituation and sensitization. Compare associative learning.
nondeclarative memory
Also called procedural memory. A memory that is shown by performance rather than by conscious recollection. See Figures 17.3, 17.5. Compare declarative memory.
nootropics
A class of drugs that enhance cognitive function.
patient H.M.
A patient who, because of damage to medial temporal lobe structures, was unable to encode new declarative memories. Upon his death we learned his name was Henry Molaison. See Figure 17.1.
patient K.C.
A patient who sustained damage to the cortex that renders him unable to form and retrieve new episodic memories, especially autobiographical memories.
patient N.A.
A patient who is unable to encode new declarative memories, because of damage to the dorsal thalamus and the mammillary bodies.
place cell
A neuron within the hippocampus that selectively fires when the animal is in a particular location.
primacy effect
The superior performance seen in a memory task for items at the start of a list; usually attributed to long-term memory. Compare recency effect.
priming
Also called repetition priming. In memory, the phenomenon by which exposure to a stimulus facilitates subsequent responses to the same or a similar stimulus.
procedural memory
See nondeclarative memory.
protein kinase
An enzyme that adds phosphate groups (PO4) to protein molecules.
recency effect
The superior performance seen in a memory task for items at the end of a list; attributed to short-term memory. Compare primacy effect.
reconsolidation
The return of a memory trace to stable long-term storage after it has been temporarily made volatile during the process of recall.
retrieval
A process in memory during which a stored memory is used by an organism. See Figure 17.8.
retrograde amnesia
Difficulty in retrieving memories formed before the onset of amnesia. Compare anterograde amnesia.
retrograde messenger
Transmitter that is released by the postsynaptic region, and travels back across the synapse, and alters the functioning of the presynaptic neuron.
semantic memory
Generalized memory—for instance, knowing the meaning of a word without knowing where or when you learned that word.
sensitization
1. A form of nonassociative learning in which an organism becomes more responsive to most stimuli after being exposed to unusually strong or painful stimulation. Compare habituation. 2. A process in which the body shows an enhanced response to a given drug after repeated doses. Compare tolerance.
short-term memory (STM)
A form of memory that usually lasts only for seconds, or as long as rehearsal continues. Compare iconic memory.
skill learning
Learning to perform a task that requires motor coordination.
standard condition (SC)
The usual environment for laboratory rodents, with a few animals in a cage and adequate food and water, but no complex stimulation. See Figure 17.17. Compare enriched condition and impoverished condition.
tetanus
An intense volley of action potentials. See Figure 17.23.
working memory
A buffer that holds memories available for ready access during performance of a task.
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