Chapter 16 Flashcards

amphetamine psychosis
A delusional and psychotic state, closely resembling acute schizophrenia, that is brought on by repeated use of high doses of amphetamine.
anxiety disorder
Any of a class of psychological disorders that include recurrent panic states, generalized persistent anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorders.
anxiolytics
A class of substances that are used to combat anxiety. Examples include alcohol, opiates, barbiturates, and the benzodiazepines.
atypical neuroleptics
A class of antischizophrenic drugs that have actions other than the dopamine D2 receptor antagonism that characterizes the typical neuroleptics. Atypical neuroleptics often feature selective and high-affinity antagonism of serotonin 5HT2 receptors.
benzodiazepines
A class of antianxiety drugs that bind with high affinity to receptor molecules in the central nervous system; one example is diazepam (Valium).
bipolar disorder
Formerly called manic-depressive illness. A psychiatric disorder characterized by periods of depression that alternate with excessive, expansive moods. Compare unipolar depression.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
Mad cow disease, a disorder caused by improperly formed prion proteins, leading to dementia and death. See also Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
chlorpromazine
An antipsychotic drug, one of the class of phenothiazines.
clozapine
An atypical neuroleptic.
co-morbid
Referring to the tendency of certain diseases or disorders to occur together in individuals.
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Psychotherapy aimed at correcting negative thinking and improving interpersonal relationships.
concordant
Referring to any trait that is seen in both individuals of a pair of twins. Compare discordant.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
A brain disorder in humans, leading to dementia and death, that is caused by improperly folded prion proteins. CJD is the human equivalent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease.
Cushing’s syndrome
A condition in which levels of adrenal glucocorticoids are abnormally high.
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
Mild electrical stimulation through an electrode that is surgically implanted deep in the brain.
delusion
A false belief strongly held in spite of contrary evidence.
depression
A psychiatric condition characterized by such symptoms as an unhappy mood; loss of interests, energy, and appetite; and difficulty concentrating. See also bipolar disorder and unipolar depression.
dexamethasone suppression test
A test of pituitary-adrenal function in which the subject is given dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone, which should cause a decline in the production of adrenal corticosteroids.
discordant
Referring to any trait that is seen in only one individual of a pair of twins. Compare concordant.
dissociative thinking
A condition, seen in schizophrenia, that is characterized by disturbances of thought and difficulty relating events properly.
dizygotic
Referring to twins derived from separate eggs (fraternal twins). Such twins are no more closely related genetically than are other full siblings. Compare monozygotic.
dopamine hypothesis
The hypothesis that schizophrenia results from either excessive levels of synaptic dopamine or excessive postsynaptic sensitivity to dopamine.
electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)
A last-resort treatment for intractable depression in which a strong electrical current is passed through the brain, causing a seizure. Rapid relief from depressive symptoms often results, associated with improved accumulation of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain.
endophenotype
Behavioral or physical characteristics acompanying susceptibility to a particular disorder, which may be used to identify those at risk.
epidemiology
The statistical study of patterns of disease in a population.
fear conditioning
A form of learning in which fear comes to be associated with a previously neutral stimulus.
glutamate hypothesis
The hypothesis that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by understimulation of glutamate receptors.
hypofrontality hypothesis
The hypothesis that schizophrenia may reflect underactivation of the frontal lobes.
ketamine
A dissociative anesthetic drug, similar to PCP, that acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
learned helplessness
A learning paradigm in which individuals are subjected to inescapable, unpleasant conditions.
lithium
An element that, administered to patients, often relieves the symptoms of bipolar disorder.
lobotomy
The detachment of a portion of the frontal lobe from the rest of the brain, once used as a treatment for schizophrenia and many other ailments.
monoamine hypothesis
The hypothesis that depression is caused by reduced activity of one or more monamine transmitters, such as serotonin.
monoamine oxidase (MAO)
An enzyme that breaks down and thereby inactivates monoamine transmitters.
monozygotic
Referring to twins derived from a single fertilized egg (identical twins). Such individuals have the same genotype. Compare dizygotic.
negative symptom
In psychiatry, a symptom that reflects insufficient functioning. Examples include emotional and social withdrawal, blunted affect, and slowness and impoverishment of thought and speech. Compare positive symptom.
neuroleptics
Also called antipsychotics. A class of drugs that alleviates symptoms of schizophrenia, typically by blocking dopamine receptors.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
A syndrome in which the affected individual engages in recurring, repetitive acts that are carried out without rhyme, reason, or the ability to stop.
phencyclidine (PCP)
Also called angel dust. An anesthetic agent that is also a psychedelic drug. PCP makes many people feel dissociated from themselves and their environment.
phobic disorder
An intense, irrational fear that becomes centered on a specific object, activity, or situation that a person feels compelled to avoid.
positive symptom
In psychiatry, a behavior that is gained in a disorder. Examples include hallucinations, delusions, and excited motor behavior. Compare negative symptom.
postpartum depression
A bout of depression that afflicts a woman either shortly before or after giving birth.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Formerly called combat fatigue, war neurosis, or shell shock. A disorder in which memories of an unpleasant episode repeatedly plague the victim.
prion
A protein that can become improperly folded and thereby can induce other proteins to follow suit, leading to long protein chains that impair neural function.
psychosurgery
Surgery in which brain lesions are produced to modify severe psychiatric disorders.
psychotomimetic
A drug that induces a state resembling schizophrenia.
reserpine
A drug that causes the depletion of monoamines and can lead to depression.
schizophrenia
A severe psychopathology characterized by negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and impoverished thought, and by positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
A drug that blocks the reuptake of transmitter at serotonergic synapses; commonly used to treat depression.
serotonin syndrome
A syndrome of confusion, muscle spasms, and fever that may occur when brain levels of serotonin are too high. A risk of taking SSRIs.
supersensitivity psychosis
An exaggerated psychosis that may emerge when doses of antipsychotic medication are reduced, probably as a consequence of the up-regulation of receptors that occurred during drug treatment. See Box 16.1.
tardive dyskinesia
A disorder characterized by involuntary movements, especially involving the face, mouth, lips, and tongue; related to prolonged use of antipsychotic drugs, such as chlorpromazine. See Box 16.1.
tricyclic antidepressants
A class of drugs that act by increasing the synaptic accumulation of serotonin and norepinephrine.
typical neuroleptics
A major class of antischizophrenic drugs that share antagonist activity at dopamine D2 receptors. Compare atypical neuroleptics.
unipolar depression
Depression that alternates with normal emotional states. Compare bipolar disorder.
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