Chapter 19 Flashcards

agnosia
The inability to recognize objects, despite being able to describe them in terms of form and color; may occur after localized brain damage.
agraphia
The inability to write. Compare alexia.
alexia
The inability to read. Compare agraphia.
angular gyrus
A brain region in which strokes can lead to word blindness.
anomia
The inability to name persons or objects readily.
aphasia
An impairment in language understanding and/or production that is caused by brain injury.
apraxia
An impairment in the ability to begin and execute skilled voluntary movements, even though there is no muscle paralysis. See also ideational apraxia and ideomotor apraxia.
arcuate fasciculus
A tract connecting Wernicke’s speech area to Broca’s speech area. See Figure 19.9.
astereognosis
The inability to recognize objects by touching and feeling them.
Broca’s aphasia
See nonfluent aphasia.
Broca’s area
A region of the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in the production of speech. See Figures 19.6, 19.7, 19.8.
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
Also called dementia pugilistica or punch-drunk. The dementia that develops in boxers; it is especially prominent in successful boxers because they participate in more bouts.
communication
Information transfer between two individuals.
conduction aphasia
An impairment in the repetition of words and sentences.
constraint-induced movement therapy
A therapy for recovery of movement after stroke or injury in which the person’s unaffected limb is constrained while he is required to perform tasks with the affected limb.
crystallization
The final stage of birdsong formation, in which fully formed adult song is achieved.
deep dyslexia
Acquired dyslexia in which the patient reads a word as another word that is semantically related. Compare surface dyslexia.
dichotic presentation
The simultaneous delivery of different stimuli to the right and the left ears. See Figure 19.16.
DTI tractography
Also call fiber tracking. Visualization of the orientation and terminations of white matter tracts in the living brain via diffusion tensor imaging.
dyslexia
A reading disorder attributed to brain impairment. Acquired dyslexia occurs as a result of injury or disease. Developmental dyslexia is associated with brain abnormalities present from birth.
ectopia
Something out of place—for example, clusters of neurons seen in unusual positions in the cortex of someone suffering from dyslexia. See Figure 19.10.
embryonic stem cell
A cell, derived from an embryo, that has the capacity to form any type of tissue that a donor might produce.
fiber tracking
See DTI tractography.
fluent aphasia
Also called Wernicke’s aphasia. A language impairment characterized by fluent, meaningless speech and little language comprehension; related to damage in Wernicke’s area. See Figure 19.8. Compare nonfluent aphasia.
fractional anisotropy (FA)
The tendency of water to diffuse more readily along the long axis of enclosed spaces such as the axon. It is the basis of diffusion tensor imaging.
fusiform gyrus
A region on the inferior surface of the cortex, at the junction of temporal and occipital lobes, that has been associated with recognition of faces. See Figure 19.19.
global aphasia
The total loss of ability to understand language, or to speak, read, or write. See Figure 19.8.
grammar
All of the rules for usage of a particular language.
hemiparesis
Weakness of one side of the body.
hemiplegia
Partial paralysis involving one side of the body.
language
The most sophisticated form of communication, in which a set of arbitrary sounds, tokens, or symbols can be arranged according to a grammar in order to convey an almost limitless variety of concepts.
lateralization
The tendency for the right and left halves of a system to differ from one another.
micropolygyria
A condition of the brain in which small regions are characterized by more gyri than usual. See Figure 19.10.
morpheme
The smallest grammatical unit of a language; a word or meaningful part of a word.
motor theory of language
The theory proposing that the left-hemisphere language zones are motor control systems that are concerned with both the precise production and the perception of the extremely complex movements that go into speech.
neologism
An entirely novel word, sometimes produced by a patient with aphasia.
nonfluent aphasia
Also called Broca’s aphasia. A language impairment characterized by difficulty with speech production but not with language comprehension; related to damage in Broca’s area. See Figure 19.7. Compare fluent aphasia.
nonfluent speech
Talking with considerable effort, short sentences, and the absence of the usual melodic character of conversational speech.
paraphasia
A symptom of aphasia that is distinguished by the substitution of a word by a sound, an incorrect word, an unintended word, or a neologism (a meaningless word).
phoneme
A sound that is produced for language.
planum temporale
A region of superior temporal cortex adjacent to the primary auditory area. See Figure 19.17.
prosody
The perception of emotional tone-of-voice aspects of language.
prosopagnosia
Also called face blindness. A condition characterized by the inability to recognize faces. Acquired prosopagnosia is caused by damage to the brain, particularly the fusiform gyrus. Developmental (or congenital) prosopagnosia is the result of brain defects present from birth.
recovery of function
The recovery of behavioral capacity following brain damage from stroke or injury.
semantics
The meanings or interpretation of words and sentences in a language.
sensitive period
The period during development in which an organism can be permanently altered by a particular experience or treatment.
split-brain individual
An individual whose corpus callosum has been severed, halting communication between the right and left hemispheres.
surface dyslexia
Acquired dyslexia in which the patient seems to attend only to the fine details of reading. Compare deep dyslexia.
syntax
The grammatical rules for constructing phrases and sentences in a language.
syrinx
The vocal organ in birds.
tachistoscope test
A test in which stimuli are very briefly exposed in either the left or right visual half-field.
Wernicke’s aphasia
See fluent aphasia.
Wernicke’s area
A region of temporoparietal cortex in the brain that is involved in the perception and production of speech. See Figures 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9.
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