Chapter 15 Flashcards

adaptation stage
The second stage in the stress response, including successful activation of the appropriate response systems and the reestablishment of homeostatic balance.
adrenal cortex
The outer rind of the adrenal gland. See Figures 5.1, 5.16; Table 5.2.
adrenal medulla
The inner core of the adrenal gland, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. See Figures 5.1, 5.16.
adrenal steroids
Also called adrenocorticoids. Steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex, including glucocorticoids such as cortisol, and mineral corticoids such as aldosterone.
alarm reaction
The initial response to stress.
amygdala
A group of nuclei in the medial anterior part of the temporal lobe. See Figure 2.17, 15.15.
antibody
Also called immunoglobulin. A large protein that recognizes and permanently binds to particular shapes, normally as part of the immune system attack on foreign particles.
B lymphocyte
Also called B cell. An immune system cell, formed in the bone marrow (hence the B), that mediates humoral immunity such as antibodies. Compare T lymphocyte. See Figure 15.27.
Bell’s palsy
A disorder, usually caused by viral infection, in which the facial nerve on one side stops conducting action potentials, resulting in paralysis on one side of the face. See Figure 15.9.
brain self-stimulation
The process in which animals will work to provide electrical stimulation to particular brain sites, presumably because the experience is very rewarding.
Cannon-Bard theory
The theory that our experience of emotion is independent of the simultaneous physiological changes that accompany it.
cognitive attribution model
The theory that our emotional experience results from cognitive analysis of the context around us, so that physiological changes may accentuate emotions, but not specify which emotion we experience.
cortisol
A glucocorticoid stress hormone of the adrenal cortex.
cytokine
A protein that induces the proliferation of other cells, as in the immune system. Examples include interleukins and interferons.
decorticate rage
Also called sham rage. Sudden intense rage characterized by actions (such as snarling and biting in dogs) that lack clear direction.
emotion
A subjective mental state that is usually accompanied by distinctive behaviors and involuntary physiological changes.
emotional dyscontrol syndrome
A condition consisting of temporal lobe disorders that may underlie some forms of human violence.
epigenetic regulation
Process affecting the expression of a particular gene or genes, without affecting the sequence of nucleotides making up the gene itself.
epinephrine
Also called adrenaline. A compound that acts both as a hormone (secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system) and as a synaptic transmitter. See Tables 4.1, 5.1.
evolutionary psychology
A field devoted to asking how natural selection has shaped behavior in humans and other animals.
exhaustion stage
A stage in the response to stress that is caused by prolonged or frequently repeated stress and is characterized by increased susceptibility to disease.
facial feedback hypothesis
The hypothesis that our emotional experience is affected by the sensory feedback we receive during particular facial expressions, like smiling.
facial nerve
The seventh cranial nerve, receiving information from the face and controlling the superficial muscles there.
fear conditioning
A form of learning in which fear comes to be associated with a previously neutral stimulus.
health psychology
Also called behavioral medicine. A field that studies psychological influences on health-related processes, such as why people become ill or how they remain healthy.
individual response stereotypy
The tendency of individuals to show the same response pattern to particular situations throughout their life span.
intermale aggression
Aggression between males of the same species.
James–Lange theory
The theory that our experience of emotion is a response to the physiological changes that accompany it.
Klüver–Bucy syndrome
A condition, brought about by bilateral amygdala damage, that is characterized by dramatic emotional changes including reduction in fear and anxiety.
limbic system
A loosely defined, widespread group of brain nuclei that innervate each other to form a network. These nuclei are implicated in emotions. See Figure 2.17.
medial forebrain bundle
A collection of axons traveling in the midline region of the forebrain. See Figure 4.22.
norepinephrine (NE)
Also called noradrenaline. 1. A neurotransmitter produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity. Also produced in the brainstem and found in projections throughout the brain. See Table 4.1. 2. Also called noradrenaline. Here, a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, which prepares the body for action.
Papez circuit
A group of brain regions within the limbic system.
parasympathetic nervous system
A component of the autonomic nervous system that arises from both the cranial nerves and the sacral spinal cord. Compare sympathetic nervous system. See Figure 2.11.
phagocyte
An immune system cell that engulfs invading molecules or microbes.
polygraph
Popularly known as a lie detector. A device that measures several bodily responses, such as heart rate and blood pressure.
psychoneuroimmunology
The study of the immune system and its interaction with the nervous system and behavior.
psychopath
An individual incapable of experiencing remorse.
psychosomatic medicine
A field of study that emphasizes the role of psychological factors in disease.
stress
Any circumstance that upsets homeostatic balance. Examples include exposure to extreme cold or heat or an array of threatening psychological states.
stress immunization
The concept that mild stress early in life makes an individual better able to handle stress later in life.
sympathetic nervous system
A component of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord. Compare parasympathetic nervous system. See Figure 2.11.
T lymphocyte
Also called T cell. An immune system cell, formed in the thymus (hence the T), that attacks foreign microbes or tissue; “killer cell.” See Figure 15.27. Compare B lymphocyte.
trigeminial nerve
The fifth cranial nerve, receiving information from the face and controlling jaw musculature.
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