Chapter 5 Flashcards

17β-estradiol
See estradiol.
adrenal cortex
The outer rind of the adrenal gland. See Figures 5.1, 5.16; Table 5.2.
adrenal gland
An endocrine gland atop the kidney. See Figures 5.1, 5.16.
adrenal medulla
The inner core of the adrenal gland, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. See Figures 5.1, 5.16.
adrenocorticoids
Also called adrenal steroids. A class of steroid hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
A tropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that controls the production and release of hormones of the adrenal cortex. See Table 5.2; Figure 5.15.
aldosterone
A mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that induces the kidneys to conserve sodium ions.
allomone
A chemical signal that is released outside the body by one species and affects the behavior of other species. See Figures 5.3, 5.4. Compare pheromone.
amine hormones
Also called monoamine hormones. A class of hormones, each composed of a single amino acid that has been modified into a related molecule, such as melatonin or epinephrine.
androgens
A class of hormones that includes testosterone and other male hormones. See Figure 5.19; Table 5.2.
androstenedione
The chief sex hormone secreted by the human adrenal cortex. Androstenedione is responsible for the adult pattern of body hair in men and women.
anterior pituitary
Also called adenohypophysis. The front division of the pituitary gland; secretes tropic hormones. See Figures 5.1, 5.14, 5.15; Table 5.2. Compare posterior pituitary.
arginine vasopressin (AVP)
Also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or simply vasopressin. A peptide hormone from the posterior pituitary that promotes water conservation. See Table 5.2.
aromatase
An enzyme that converts many androgens into estrogens.
autocrine
Referring to a signal that is secreted by a cell into its environment and that feeds back to the same cell. See Figure 5.3. Compare paracrine.
autoradiography
A histological technique that shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues. See Boxes 2.1, 5.1.
castration
Removal of the gonads, usually the testes.
corpora lutea (sing. corpus luteum)
The structures formed from collapsed ovarian follicles subsequent to ovulation. The corpora lutea are a major source of progesterone.
cortisol
A glucocorticoid stress hormone of the adrenal cortex.
cretinism
Also called congenital hypothyroidism. Reduced stature and intellectual disability caused by thyroid deficiency during early development.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP)
A second messenger activated in target cells in response to synaptic or hormonal stimulation.
cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP, or cGMP)
A second messenger activated in target cells in response to synaptic or hormonal stimulation.
endocrine
Referring to glands that release chemicals to the interior of the body. These glands secrete the principal hormones. See Figure 5.3.
endocrine gland
A gland that secretes products into the bloodstream to act on distant targets. See Figure 5.1. Compare exocrine gland.
epinephrine
Also called adrenaline. A compound that acts both as a hormone (secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system) and as a synaptic transmitter. See Tables 4.1, 5.1.
estradiol
Also called 17β-estradiol. The primary type of estrogen that is secreted by the ovary. See Table 5.2.
estrogens
A class of steroid hormones produced by female gonads. See Figures 5.15, 5.19; Table 5.2.
estrogens
A class of steroid hormones produced by female gonads. See Figures 5.15, 5.19; Table 5.2.
exocrine gland
A gland whose secretions exit the body via ducts. Compare endocrine gland.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
A gonadotropin, named for its actions on ovarian follicles. See Figures 5.15, 5.19; Table 5.2.
follicles
Ovarian structures containing immature ova.
glucocorticoids
A class of steroid hormones, released by the adrenal cortex, that affect carbohydrate metabolism and inflammation.
goiter
A swelling of the thyroid gland resulting from iodine deficiency.
gonadotropin
An anterior pituitary hormone that selectively stimulates the cells of the gonads to produce sex steroids and gametes. See luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.
gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH)
A hypothalamic peptide hormone that reduces gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary. Compare kisspeptin.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
A hypothalamic hormone that controls the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. See Figure 5.19.
gonads
The sexual organs (ovaries in females, testes in males), which produce gametes for reproduction. See Figure 5.1; Table 5.2.
growth hormone (GH)
Also called somatotropin or somatotropic hormone. A tropic hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary, that influences the growth of cells and tissues. See Figure 5.15; Table 5.2.
hormone
A chemical secreted by an endocrine gland that is conveyed by the bloodstream and regulates target organs or tissues. See Tables 5.1, 5.2.
hypophyseal portal system
A duplex system of capillaries spanning between the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus and the secretory tissue of the anterior pituitary.
immunocytochemistry (ICC)
A method for detecting a particular protein in tissues in which an antibody recognizes and binds to the protein and then chemical methods are used to leave a visible reaction product around each antibody. See Boxes 2.1, 5.1.
in situ hybridization
A method for detecting particular RNA transcripts in tissue sections by providing a nucleotide probe that is complementary to, and will therefore hybridize with, the transcript of interest. See Box 2.1, Box 5.1; Appendix Figure A.4.
kisspeptin
A hypothalamic peptide hormone that increases gonadotropin secretion by facilitating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Compare gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone.
knockout organism
An individual in which a particular gene has been disabled by an experimenter. See Box 7.3.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
A gonadotropin, named for its stimulatory effects on the ovarian corpora lutea. See Figures 5.15, 5.19; Table 5.2.
median eminence
Midline feature on the base of the brain marking the point at which the pituitary stalk exits the hypothalamus to connect to the pituitary. Contains elements of the hypophyseal portal system.
melatonin
An amine hormone that is released by the pineal gland. See Tables 4.1, 5.2.
milk letdown reflex
The reflexive release of milk in response to suckling, or to stimuli associated with suckling. The mechanism involves release of the hormone oxytocin. See Figure 5.12.
mineralocorticoids
A class of steroid hormones, released by the adrenal cortex, that affect ion concentrations in body tissues.
negative feedback
The property by which some of the output of a system feeds back to reduce the effect of input signals. Compare positive feedback.
neurocrine
Referring to secretory functions of neurons, especially pertaining to synaptic transmission. See Figure 5.3.
neuroendocrine cell
Also called neurosecretory cell. A neuron that releases hormones into local or systemic circulation.
neuromodulator
See noncompetitive ligand.
neuropeptide
Also called peptide neurotransmitter. A peptide that is used by neurons for signaling.
neurosecretory cell
See neuroendocrine cell.
nongenomic effect
An effect of a steroid hormone that is not mediated by direct changes in gene expression.
norepinephrine (NE)
Also called noradrenaline. 1. A neurotransmitter produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity. Also produced in the brainstem and found in projections throughout the brain. See Table 4.1. 2. Also called noradrenaline. Here, a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, which prepares the body for action.
oral contraceptive
A birth control pill, typically consisting of steroid hormones to prevent ovulation.
ovaries
The female gonads, which produce eggs for reproduction. See Figures 5.1, 12.8, 12.13; Table 5.2.
oxytocin
A hormone, released from the posterior pituitary, that triggers milk letdown in the nursing female. See Figures 5.11, 5.12; Table 5.2.
paracrine
Referring to cellular communication in which a chemical signal diffuses to nearby target cells through the intermediate extracellular space. See Figure 5.3. Compare autocrine.
paragigantocellular nucleus (PGN)
A region of the brainstem reticular formation implicated in sleep and modulation of spinal reflexes.
peptide hormones
Also called protein hormones. A class of hormones, molecules of which consist of a string of amino acids.
pheromone
A chemical signal that is released outside the body of an animal and affects other members of the same species. See Figure 5.3. Compare allomone.
phosphoinositides
A class of common second-messenger compounds in postsynaptic cells.
pineal gland
A secretory gland in the brain midline; the source of melatonin release. See Figures 2.12, 5.1; Table 5.2.
pituitary gland
Also called hypophysis. A small, complex endocrine gland located in a socket at the base of the skull. The anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary are separate in function. See Figures 2.12, 5.10, 5.11, 5.14.
pituitary stalk
Also called infundibulum. A thin piece of tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
posterior pituitary
Also called neurohypophysis. The rear division of the pituitary gland. See Figures 5.1, 5.11; Table 5.2. Compare anterior pituitary.
progesterone
The primary type of progestin secreted by the ovary. See Figure 5.19; Table 5.2.
progestins
A major class of steroid hormones that are produced by the ovary, including progesterone. See Figure 5.15, 5.19; Table 5.2.
prolactin
A protein hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary, that promotes mammary development for lactation in female mammals. See Table 5.2; Figure 5.15.
radioimmunoassay (RIA)
A technique that uses antibodies to measure the concentration of a substance, such as a hormone, in blood. See Box 5.1.
receptor isoform
A version of a receptor protein (in this context, a hormone receptor) with slight differences in structure that give it different functional properties. Conceptually similar to a receptor subtype.
releasing hormones
A class of hormones, produced in the hypothalamus, that traverse the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system to control the pituitary’s release of tropic hormones. See Figure 5.9.
second messenger
A slow-acting substance in the postsynaptic cell that amplifies the effects of synaptic activity and signals synaptic activity within the postsynaptic cell.
sex steroids
Steroid hormones secreted by the gonads: androgens, estrogens, and progestins.
somatomedins
A group of proteins, released from the liver in response to growth hormone, that aid body growth and maintenance.
steroid hormones
A class of hormones, each of which is composed of four interconnected rings of carbon atoms.
steroid receptor cofactors
Proteins that affect the cell’s response when a steroid hormone binds its receptor.
supraoptic nucleus
A hypothalamic nucleus containing neuroendocrine cells that send axons to the posterior pituitary to release oxytocin or vasopressin.
testes (sing. testis)
The male gonads, which produce sperm and androgenic steroid hormones. See Figures 5.1, 12.8, 12.13; Table 5.2.
testosterone
A hormone, produced by male gonads, that controls a variety of bodily changes that become visible at puberty. See Figures 5.15, 5.19; Table 5.2.
thyroid gland
An endocrine gland, located in the throat, that regulates cellular metabolism throughout the body. See Figure 5.1; Table 5.2.
thyroid hormones
Two hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine (also called tetraiodothyronine), released from the thyroid gland that have widespread effects, including growth and maintenance of the brain.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
A tropic hormone, released by the anterior pituitary gland, that signals the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. See Figures 5.10, 5.15.
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
A hypothalamic hormone that regulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary. See Figure 5.10.
transcription factor
A substance that binds to recognition sites on DNA and alters the rate of expression of particular genes.
tropic hormones
A class of anterior pituitary hormones that affect the secretion of other endocrine glands. See Figure 5.9.
vasopressin
See arginine vasopressin.
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