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Chapter 1 Flashcards

behavioral intervention
An approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves intervening in the behavior of an organism and looking for resultant changes in body structure or function. See Figure 1.2. Compare somatic intervention.
biological psychology
Also called behavioral neuroscience. The study of the biological bases of psychological processes and behavior.
consciousness
The state of awareness of one’s own existence and experience.
conserved
In the context of evolution, referring to a trait that is passed on from a common ancestor to two or more descendant species.
correlation
The covariation of two measures.
dependent variable
The factor that an experimenter measures to monitor a change in response to manipulation of an independent variable.
dualism
The notion, promoted by René Descartes, that the mind is subject only to spiritual interactions, while the body is subject only to material interactions.
independent variable
The factor that is manipulated by an experimenter. Compare dependent variable.
levels of analysis
The scope of experimental approaches. A scientist may try to understand behavior by monitoring molecules, nerve cells, brain regions, or social environments, or some combination of these levels of analysis.
neuron
Also called nerve cell. The basic unit of the nervous system. Each neuron is composed of a cell body, receptive extension(s) (dendrites), and a transmitting extension (axon). See Figures 2.4, 2.5.
neuroplasticity
Also called neural plasticity. The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment.
neuroscience
The study of the nervous system.
ontogeny
The process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime—that is, grows up and grows old.
phrenology
The belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of brain regions responsible for certain behavioral faculties. See Figure 1.12.
reductionism
The scientific strategy of breaking a system down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it.
somatic intervention
An approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves manipulating body structure or function and looking for resultant changes in behavior. See Figure 1.2. Compare behavioral intervention.
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